Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Biomarkers
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=biomarker[Title/Abstract] AND "Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin"[Majr]
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SUVmax/THKmax as a biomarker for distinguishing advanced gastric carcinoma from primary gastric lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e50914
Authors: Fu L, Li H, Wang H, Xu B, Fan Y, Tian J
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) are the two most common malignancies in stomach. The purpose of this study was to screen and validate a biomarker of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) for distinguishing advanced gastric carcinoma (AGC) from PGL for clinical applications.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed PET/CT scans collected from January 2008 to April 2012 of 69 AGC and 38 PGL (14 low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT], 24 non-MALT aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma [ANHL]) with a focus on FDG intensity (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax]) of primary lesions and its CT-detected abnormalities, including maximal gastrointestinal wall thickness (THKmax) and mucosal ulcerations. Gastric FDG uptake was found in 69 (100%) patients with AGC and 36 (95%, 12 MALT vs. 24 ANHL)with PGL. The presence of CT-detected abnormalities of AGC and PGL were 97% (67/69) and 89% (12 MALT vs. 22 ANHL), respectively. After controlling for THKmax, SUVmax was higher with ANHL than AGC (17.10 ± 8.08 vs. 9.65 ± 5.24, p<0.05) and MALT (6.20 ± 3.60, p<0.05). THKmax did not differ among MALT, ANHL and AGC. Mucosal ulceration was more common with AGC (n = 9) than PGL (n = 2),but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Cross-validation analysis showed that for distinguishing ANHL from AGC, the classifier with SUVmax as a feature achieved a correct classification rate of 81% with thresholds 13.40 ± 1.12 and the classifier with SUVmax/THKmax as a feature achieved a correct classification rate of 83% with thresholds 7.51 ± 0.63.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SUVmax/THKmax may be as a promising biomarker of FDG-PET/CT for distinguishing ANHL from AGC. Structural CT abnormalities alone may not be reliable but can help with PET assessment of gastric malignancies. (18)F-FDG PET/CT have potential for distinguishing AGC from PGL at the individual level.
PMID: 23226547 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CCND2 rearrangements are the most frequent genetic events in cyclin D1(-) mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2013 Feb 21;121(8):1394-402
Authors: Salaverria I, Royo C, Carvajal-Cuenca A, Clot G, Navarro A, Valera A, Song JY, Woroniecka R, Rymkiewicz G, Klapper W, Hartmann EM, Sujobert P, Wlodarska I, Ferry JA, Gaulard P, Ott G, Rosenwald A, Lopez-Guillermo A, Quintanilla-Martinez L, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Siebert R, Campo E, Beà S
Cyclin D1(-) mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) are not well characterized, in part because of the difficulties in their recognition. SOX11 has been identified recently as a reliable biomarker of MCL that is also expressed in the cyclin D1(-) variant. We investigated 40 lymphomas with MCL morphology and immunophenotype that were negative for cyclin D1 expression/t(11;14)(q13;q32) but positive for SOX11. These tumors presented clinically with generalized lymphadenopathy, advanced stage, and poor outcome (5-year overall survival, 48%). Chromosomal rearrangements of the CCND2 locus were detected in 55% of the cases, with an IG gene as partner in 18 of 22, in particular with light chains (10 IGK@ and 5 IGL@). No mutations in the phosphorylation motifs of CCND1, CCND2, or CCND3 were detected. The global genomic profile and the high complexity of the 32 cyclin D1(-) SOX11(+) MCL patients analyzed by copy number arrays were similar to the conventional cyclin D1/SOX11 MCL. 17p deletions and high Ki67 expression conferred a significantly worse outcome for the patients. This comprehensive characterization of a large series of cyclin D1(-) MCL patients indicates that these tumors are clinically and biologically similar to the conventional cyclin D1(+) MCL and provides a basis for the proper identification and clinical management of these patients.
PMID: 23255553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MicroRNAs are suitable for assessment as biomarkers from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and miR-24 represents an appropriate reference microRNA for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma studies.
J Clin Pathol. 2013 Mar;66(3):249-52
Authors: Culpin RE, Sieniawski M, Proctor SJ, Menon G, Mainou-Fowler T
Tissue biopsy specimens in the form of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) represent a valuable resource for biomarker identification and validation. However, to date, they remain an underused asset due to uncertainty regarding RNA extraction and the reliability of downstream techniques, including quantitative RT-PCR. Recently, much interest has emerged in the study of microRNAs; small single-stranded RNAs with a role in transcriptional regulation, that are thought to be well preserved in FFPET. In this study, we show that microRNA expression is comparable between FFPET and matched fresh-frozen samples (miR-17-5p: p=0.01, miR-92: p=0.003), and demonstrate that no significant deterioration in expression occurs over prolonged FFPET storage (p=0.06). Furthermore, microRNA expression is equivalent dependant on RNA extraction method (p<0.001) or DNAse treatment of total RNA (p<0.001). Finally, we validate miR-24 as a suitable reference microRNA for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) FFPET studies.
PMID: 23172553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Homozygous A polymorphism of the complement C1qA276 correlates with prolonged overall survival in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP.
J Hematol Oncol. 2012;5:51
Authors: Jin X, Ding H, Ding N, Fu Z, Song Y, Zhu J
BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism of action for rituximab (R) is not fully elucidated. Besides antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complements may also play an important role in the clinical response to rituximab-based therapy in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between C1qA polymorphism and the clinical response to standard frontline treatment with R-CHOP in DLBCL patients.
METHODS: Genotyping for C1qA[276A/G] was done in 164 patients with DLBCL. 129 patients treated with R-CHOP as frontline therapy (R ≥ 4 cycles) were assessable for the efficacy.
RESULTS: Patients with homozygous A were found to have a higher overall response rate than those with heterozygous or homozygous G alleles (97.3% vs. 83.7%,P = 0.068). The complete response rate in patients with homozygous A was statistically higher than that in AG and GG allele carriers (89.2% vs. 51.1%,P = 0.0001). The overall survival of patients with homozygous A was longer than that of the G allele carriers (676 days vs. 497 days, P = 0.023). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that C1qA A/A allele was an independent favorable prognostic factor for DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP as first-line therapy.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that C1qA polymorphism may be a biomarker to predict response to R-CHOP as frontline therapy for DLBCL patients.
PMID: 22897949 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ER stress in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: GRP94 is a possible biomarker in germinal center versus activated B-cell type.
Leuk Res. 2013 Jan;37(1):3-8
Authors: Boelens J, Jais JP, Vanhoecke B, Beck I, Van Melckebeke H, Philippé J, Bracke M, Jardin F, Brière J, Leroy K, Offner F, Lust S
The process of B-cell development is characterized by the activation of the unfolded protein response. Under certain circumstances, the unfolded protein response can be manipulated in a cell death-inducing way. Therefore, tackling the unfolded protein response might be an attractive strategy in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Our research showed more basal unfolded protein response activity and differences in the inducibility of ER stress in activated B-cell versus germinal center cell lines. Moreover, the diffuse large B cell lymphoma patient data revealed that the glucose-regulated protein 94 is new potential discriminator for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
PMID: 22938940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Expression of microRNA-223 and its clinicopathologic correlation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Jun;41(6):366-70
Authors: Yao XX, Wang JF, Wang YH, Gao N
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of miR-223 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with correlation of histoloigcal subtypes and clinical prognosis.
METHODS: A total of 45 cases of DLBCL were investigated by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method) for CD20, CD3, CD10, bcl-6 and MUM-1. The cases were classified into germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and non-germinal center B cell-like (non-GCB) subtypes according to Hans' algorithm. Agilent Human miRNA Microarray 16.0 was used to detect the expression of micro-RNAs in paraffin-embedded tissue of 24 cases of DLBCL that had available clinical follow-up. The expression levels of miR-223 were examined by TaqMan real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Fourteen cases of reactive lymph node were selected as control.
RESULTS: Among 45 cases of DLBCL, 16 cases (35.6%) were GCB and 29 cases (64.4%) were non-GCB subtypes. The expression levels of miR-223 measured by real-time RT-PCR were 19.8 and 15.8 in GCB and non-GCB subgroups, respectively (P = 0.236). The expression of miR-223 was up-regulated in DLBCL with 17.2 folds of increase over that of the reactive lymph nodes (P = 0.014). The overexpression of miR-223 was significantly correlated with a longer overall survival (P = 0.011). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis identified the following independent poor prognostic factors: low expression of miR-223 (RR = 5.445, 95%CI, 1.555 - 19.068, P = 0.008), abnormal level of LDH (RR = 3.974, 95%CI, 1.191 - 13.266, P = 0.025) and IPI ≥ 3 (RR = 4.044, 95%CI, 1.233 - 13.264, P = 0.021).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of miR-223 has no relationship with the immunophenotypes of DLBCL. As a potential prognostic biomarker, overexpression of miR-223 correlates with a longer OS of patients with DLBCL.
PMID: 22932402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Elevated serum granulysin and its clinical relevance in mature NK-cell neoplasms.
Int J Hematol. 2012 Oct;96(4):461-8
Authors: Sekiguchi N, Asano N, Ito T, Momose K, Momose M, Ishida F
Mature natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms include extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK). Granulysin, a cytolytic granule protein, is expressed in cytotoxic T cells and NK cells, and is found in the sera as well, and functions as a cytotoxic and proinflammatory protein. Cytolytic proteins, such as granzyme B and perforin, have been shown to play crucial pathophysiological roles in NK/T cell neoplasms and have also been utilized for diagnostic purposes. Granulysin in NK-cell proliferative disorders, however, has yet to be fully analyzed. To elucidate the clinical relevance of granulysin in mature NK-cell neoplasms, we measured serum granulysin and analyzed cytolytic molecules immunohistologically. The median concentrations of serum granulysin were 39.0, 2.85, 2.8 and 1.35 ng/ml in ANKL, ENKL, CLPD-NK and healthy subjects, respectively (P < 0.01). Serum granulysin was significantly elevated in patients with ANKL compared with the levels in ENKL (P = 0.006) and CLPD-NK (P = 0.037). Furthermore, serum granulysin was correlated with whole-blood EBV viral load in ENKL and ANKL (P = 0.005) and was significantly reduced after treatment. Different expression patterns of cytolytic granule proteins were observed among the mature NK-cell neoplasms. Granulysin is closely associated with the characteristics of NK-cell neoplasms and serum granulysin may serve as a novel biomarker for these disorders.
PMID: 22890551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio identifies high-risk patients in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP.
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41658
Authors: Li ZM, Huang JJ, Xia Y, Sun J, Huang Y, Wang Y, Zhu YJ, Li YJ, Zhao W, Wei WX, Lin TY, Huang HQ, Jiang WQ
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a correlation between immune microenvironment and lymphoma biology. This study aims to investigate the prognostic significance of the immunologically relevant lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed retrospective data from 438 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. We randomly selected 200 patients (training set) to generate a cutoff value for LMR by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. LMR was then analyzed in a testing set (n = 238) and in all patients (n = 438) for validation. The LMR cutoff value for survival analysis determined by ROC curve in the training set was 2.6. Patients with low LMR tended to have more adverse clinical characteristics. Low LMR at diagnosis was associated with worse survival in DLBCL, and could also identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI category. Multivariate analysis identified LMR as an independent prognostic factor of survival in the testing set and in all patients.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Baseline LMR, a surrogate biomarker of the immune microenvironment, is an effective prognostic factor in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP therapy. Future prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.
PMID: 22911837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MLN0905, a small-molecule plk1 inhibitor, induces antitumor responses in human models of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Sep;11(9):2045-53
Authors: Shi JQ, Lasky K, Shinde V, Stringer B, Qian MG, Liao D, Liu R, Driscoll D, Nestor MT, Amidon BS, Rao Y, Duffey MO, Manfredi MG, Vos TJ, D' Amore N, Hyer ML
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas, accounting for up to 30% of all newly diagnosed lymphoma cases. Current treatment options for this disease are effective, but not always curative; therefore, experimental therapies continue to be investigated. We have discovered an experimental, potent, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of PLK1, MLN0905, which inhibits cell proliferation in a broad range of human tumor cells including DLBCL cell lines. In our report, we explored the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and antitumor properties of MLN0905 in DLBCL xenograft models grown in mice. These studies indicate that MLN0905 modulates the pharmacodynamic biomarker phosphorylated histone H3 (pHisH3) in tumor tissue. The antitumor activity of MLN0905 was evaluated in three human subcutaneous DLBCL xenograft models, OCI LY-10, OCI LY-19, and PHTX-22L (primary lymphoma). In each model, MLN0905 yielded significant antitumor activity on both a continuous (daily) and intermittent dosing schedule, underscoring dosing flexibility. The antitumor activity of MLN0905 was also evaluated in a disseminated xenograft (OCI LY-19) model to better mimic human DLBCL disease. In the disseminated model, MLN0905 induced a highly significant survival advantage. Finally, MLN0905 was combined with a standard-of-care agent, rituximab, in the disseminated OCI LY-19 xenograft model. Combining rituximab and MLN0905 provided both a synergistic antitumor effect and a synergistic survival advantage. Our findings indicate that PLK1 inhibition leads to pharmacodynamic pHisH3 modulation and significant antitumor activity in multiple DLBCL models. These data strongly suggest evaluating PLK1 inhibitors as DLBCL anticancer agents in the clinic.
PMID: 22609854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A highly sensitive and specific qPCR assay for quantification of the biomarker SOX11 in mantle cell lymphoma.
Eur J Haematol. 2012 Nov;89(5):385-94
Authors: Hamborg KH, Bentzen HH, Grubach L, Hokland P, Nyvold CG
OBJECTIVES: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the most heterogeneous lymphoid neoplasms with a variable course of disease. Although t(11;14)(q13;q32) is the hallmark of MCL resulting in cyclin D1 (CCND1) overexpression in 90% of patients, this is difficult to validate by immunohistochemistry. We hypothesised that SOX11 could be a robust molecular biomarker for MCL.
METHODS: We have developed very sensitive and specific RT-qPCR assay employing a poly-A specific RT primer to circumvent contamination from gDNA caused by the intron-less nature of SOX11.
RESULTS: We found a significant difference between the expression levels of SOX11 in patients with MCL at diagnosis (n = 21) and in healthy donors (n = 18) (blood: P < 0.0001; marrow: P = 0.0001). SOX11 expression of very low levels close to the assay sensitivity was detected in only 2 of 18 healthy donors, while low levels of CCND1 expression was observed in all blood and 12 of 13 marrow samples within the defined detection limit of Cq = 40. In spiking experiments of the GRANTA-519 MCL cell line into mononuclear cells from normal donor, the sensitivity of the SOX11 assay was found to be 2 × 10(-4) , while the sensitivity of the CCND1 assay was estimated to 2 × 10(-3) because of the normal background expression. In longitudinal sampling from patients with MCL the minimal residual disease (MRD) values based on the SOX11 expression mirrored the clinical disease development.
CONCLUSION: This SOX11 RT-qPCR assay could be a useful tool for MRD monitoring in patients with MCL.
PMID: 22827557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]