Liver Cancer Biomarkers
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=biomarker[Title/Abstract] AND "Liver Neoplasms"[Mesh]
Updated: 8 hours 53 min ago
Serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein as a prognostic indicator in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cytokine. 2012 Dec;60(3):686-93
Authors: Jang JW, Oh BS, Kwon JH, You CR, Chung KW, Kay CS, Jung HS
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often associated with chronic inflammation, suggesting a strong relationship between inflammation and carcinogenesis. This study evaluated the prognostic values of inflammatory and T-helper (Th) cytokines in the clinical outcome and survival of HCC. The study included 110 patients with HCC undergoing loco-regional therapy and 24 healthy controls. Five Th1/Th2 cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) were quantified before and after loco-regional treatment, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Levels of CRP, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 were higher in patients with HCC than those in healthy subjects. Tumor characteristics, Child-Pugh class, and CRP, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were associated with HCC survival (all P<0.05). With multivariate analysis, higher IL-6 levels were identified as the independent cytokine for shorter survival (P=0.010). Higher CRP and IL-6 levels correlated well with larger tumor size, poor Child-Pugh function, and shorter survival, with a significant inter-correlation (r=0.667). On serial measurements, the association of CRP with tumor response was stronger than that of α-fetoprotein or other cytokines. IL-6 and CRP are strong inflammatory indicators predictive of outcome in patients with HCC receiving loco-regional therapy. This study suggests that inflammatory activation of the IL-6/CRP network may be a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for HCC.
PMID: 22906998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ki-67 is a prognostic biomarker of survival after radiofrequency ablation of liver malignancies.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2012 Dec;19(13):4262-9
Authors: Sofocleous CT, Garg S, Petrovic LM, Gonen M, Petre EN, Klimstra DS, Solomon SB, Brown KT, Brody LA, Covey AM, Dematteo RP, Schwartz L, Kemeny NE
PURPOSE: To assess the predictive value of examinations of tissue adherent to multitined electrodes on local tumor progression-free survival (LPFS) and overall survival (OS) after liver tumor radiofrequency ablation (RFA).
METHODS: An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant review identified 68 liver tumors treated with RFA in 63 patients with at least 3 years' follow-up. Tissue adherent to the electrode after liver tumor RFA was evaluated with proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers. LPFS and OS were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier methodology and the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis assessed the effect of tumor size, pathology, and post-RFA tissue characteristics on LPFS and OS.
RESULTS: Post-RFA tissue examination classified 55 of the 68 tumors as completely ablated with coagulation necrosis, with cells positive for caspase-3 and negative for Ki-67 (CN). Thirteen had viable Ki-67-positive tumor cells. Mean liver tumor size was larger in the viable (V) group versus the CN group (3.4 vs. 2.5 cm, respectively; P = .017). For the V and CN groups, respectively, local tumor progression occurred in 12 (92 %) of 13 and 23 (42 %) of 55 specimens. One, 3-, and 5-year LPFS was 8 %, 8 %, and 8 %, and 79 %, 47 %, and 47 % (P < .001) for the V and CN groups, respectively. During a 63-month median follow-up, 92 % of patients in the V group and 58 % in the CN group died, resulting in 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS of 92 %, 25 %, and 8 % vs. 92 %, 59 %, and 33 % (P = .032), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67-positive tumor cells on the electrode after liver tumor RFA is an independent predictor of LPFS and OS. Size, initially thought to be an independent risk factor for local tumor progression in tumors 3-5 cm, does not hold its significance at long follow-up.
PMID: 22752375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The "stone-like" pattern of LC3A expression and its clinicopathologic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Feb 22;431(4):760-6
Authors: Xi SY, Lu JB, Chen JW, Cao Y, Luo RZ, Wu QL, Cai MY
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that involves lysosomal degradations of cellular organelles. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A (LC3A), an autophagic gene, is differentially expressed in human cancers. However, the relationship between LC3A expression and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated. Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression patterns of LC3A in HCC. The resulting data were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman's rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Two distinct patterns of LC3A expression were observed in HCC: "stone-like" structuring and diffuse cytoplasmic expression. High levels of LC3A expression were more frequently observed in HCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumorous tissue. Correlation analyses indicated that high expression of the "stone-like" LC3A was correlated with greater levels of serum AFP, poorer tumor differentiation and the presence of vascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant association between high expression of the "stone-like" LC3A and unfavorable prognosis (P<0.001). Importantly, multivariate analysis (P<0.05) identified the "stone-like" expression of LC3A in HCC as an independent prognostic factor. Collectively, our data provide compelling evidence that "stone-like" expression of LC3A plays an important role in HCC progression and may act as a biomarker of prognosis for patients with HCC.
PMID: 23333394 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Evaluation of seven different staging systems for alpha-fetoprotein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy.
Tumour Biol. 2013 Apr;34(2):1061-70
Authors: Zhou J, Yan T, Bi X, Zhao H, Huang Z, Zhang Y, Li Y, Feng L, Wang J, Cai J
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) represents the most important biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify the optimal staging system to predict the survival of AFP-negative and AFP-positive patients. This study analyzed the data of 431 AFP-negative HCC patients who had previously undergone surgery and 471 AFP-positive HCC candidates. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) survival estimates were plotted, and the P values were assessed using log-rank tests. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was calculated using the results of a Cox's regression to compare the overall assessment of the seven different staging systems. The AFP-positive group displayed characteristics of poor tumor biological behavior (tumor multiplicity [P = 0.032], low grade differentiation [P = 0.000] and carcinoma cell embolus [P = 0.031]), poor liver function (Child-Pugh B classification [P = 0.003], abnormal prothrombin time activity [P = 0.037] and moderate/severe cirrhosis [P = 0.000]) and increased operative difficulties (transfusion; P = 0.001). TNM7th staging showed the lowest AIC value (1,279.528) for the AFP-negative group, while the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system revealed the lowest AIC value (1,991.233) for the AFP-positive group. In conclusion, among the seven favorable staging systems, BCLC staging was superior for the AFP-positive group, while the TNM7th was a more appropriate staging model for the AFP-negative group.
PMID: 23322323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prognostic significance of BMP7 as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2013 Apr;34(2):669-74
Authors: Li W, Cai HX, Ge XM, Li K, Xu WD, Shi WH
This study aims to evaluate the association between BMP7 tissue expression and patient prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression of BMP7 mRNA in HCC was characterized using real-time PCR and 30 pairs of fresh frozen HCC tissues and corresponding noncancerous tissues. BMP7 protein expression in HCC was confirmed using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray chip. Finally, BMP7 expression was correlated with conventional clinicopathological features of HCC and patient outcome. The expression of BMP7 mRNA and protein in HCC cells was much higher than in normal hepatic cells. Our results showed that the high expression of BMP7 in HCC was related to tumor size (p < 0.001), histological differentiation (p = 0.041), serum AFP (p = 0.007), and tumor stage (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high-expression level of BMP7 resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of HCC patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMP7 expression level was an independent prognostic parameter for the overall survival rate of HCC patients. These findings provide evidence that a high-expression level of BMP7 serves as a biomarker for poor prognosis for HCC. Thus, we speculate that BMP7 may be a potential target of antiangiogenic therapy for HCC.
PMID: 23179403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Intermedin is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and regulates cell proliferation and survival.
Cancer Sci. 2012 Aug;103(8):1474-80
Authors: Guo X, Schmitz JC, Kenney BC, Uchio EM, Kulkarni S, Cha CH
Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of tumor growth and metastasis. Identification of tumor angiogenic factors has been a critical component in understanding cancer biology and treatment. Intermedin (IMD) has been reported to promote angiogenesis in a rat ischemic model and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Our study sought to determine the role of IMD in human hepatocellular carcinoma tumor progression. High IMD mRNA expression levels were observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma tumors, even in early stage disease, by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma clinical samples demonstrated that the tumor regions were significantly more immunoreactive for IMD than adjacent benign liver. Inhibition of IMD expression using RNA interference reduced cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 and SNU-398 cells. Blockage of IMD signaling using either an antagonist peptide or a neutralizing antibody inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant induction of apoptosis, causing cleavage of caspase-8 and downregulation of Gli1 and Bcl2. Conversely, addition of IMD active peptide increased the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Thus, IMD might play an important role in cell proliferation and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our data suggests that IMD is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.
PMID: 22625651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Immunogenic cell death biomarkers HMGB1, RAGE, and DNAse indicate response to radioembolization therapy and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Cancer. 2013 May 15;132(10):2349-58
Authors: Fahmueller YN, Nagel D, Hoffmann RT, Tatsch K, Jakobs T, Stieber P, Holdenrieder S
Radioembolization therapy (RE) is an efficient locoregional treatment for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Serum biomarkers involved in immunogenic cell death are potentially valuable for early predicting therapy response and estimating prognosis. In a prospective observation study, blood samples were taken from 49 consecutive colorectal cancer patients with extensive hepatic metastases before, 24 and 48 hr after RE. Serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), receptor of glycation end products (RAGE) and activity of desoxyribonuclease were compared with response to therapy regularly determined radiologically 3 months after therapy and with overall survival. Serum levels of HMGB1 were increased already 24 hr after RE, while RAGE levels were decreased and DNAse remained unchanged. In radiological staging, 35 patients demonstrated disease progression while 14 patients had stable disease or remission. Serum HMGB1 levels 24 hr after RE were significantly higher in progressive than in nonprogressive patients while for RAGE and DNAse no difference was observed between the response groups. Concerning overall survival, high pretherapeutic (0 hr) and 24 hr levels of HMGB1 were associated with poor outcome. Multivariate analysis including HMGB1, tumor, liver and inflammation markers revealed HMGB1 and CRP as independent prognostic parameters. HMGB1 is a valuable serum biomarker for early estimation of therapy response and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases undergoing RE therapy.
PMID: 23047645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Interleukin-6 and oncostatin M are elevated in liver disease in conjunction with candidate hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker GP73.
Cancer Biomark. 2012;11(4):161-71
Authors: Liang H, Block TM, Wang M, Nefsky B, Long R, Hafner J, Mehta AS, Marrero J, Gish R, Norton PA
The Golgi phosphoprotein GP73 is elevated in the circulation of individuals with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Its usefulness as a biomarker of HCC is questioned, since it has also been reported to be elevated in the circulation of people with liver cirrhosis. Regulation of GP73 by inflammatory cytokines is therefore of interest. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokines were tested for effects on GP73 mRNA and/or protein levels in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. Levels of GP73 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in HepG2 cells following treatment with either proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 or the related cytokine oncostatin M (OSM). Induction required the shared receptor subunit gp130, and correlated with increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Maximal cytokine-mediated induction was not observed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting additional regulatory factors play an important role. ELISA measurement of GP73 and IL-6 levels in the sera of patients with pre-malignant liver disease revealed a significant correlation between circulating levels of the two proteins. Similarly, a sensitive ELISA assay was developed to measure circulating OSM. OSM levels were elevated 6-7 fold in sera from patients with either cirrhosis or HCC relative to controls without liver disease. Although there was an association between levels of GP73 and OSM in serum from people with liver cirrhosis, there was not a statistically significant correlation in HCC, suggesting that the role of the cytokines in determining circulating levels may be complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of OSM elevation being associated with liver disease.
PMID: 23144154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Is serum level of methylated RASSF1A valuable in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C?
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2012 Sep;13(3):111-5
Authors: Mohamed NA, Swify EM, Amin NF, Soliman MM, Tag-Eldin LM, Elsherbiny NM
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The detection of the promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A in serum DNA could be a valuable biomarker for early detection of preneoplastic lesions and early cancer development among high-risk populations who are at a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, we aimed determining the serum level of methylated RASSF1A sequence in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection and to evaluate the predictive value of it as a diagnostic marker for HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum levels of methylated RASSF1A were detected and measured using real-time PCR after digestion with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme in 40 patients with chronic HCV infection, 40 patients with HCC (on top of HCV) and 20 controls.
RESULTS: Methylated RASSF1A was detected in 10% of the controls, 62.5% of HCV group and in 90% of HCC group. Chronic HCV patients had insignificantly higher levels than the controls. The levels were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared to the controls (p=0.0001) and chronic HCV patients (p=0.001). By logistic regression analysis, the serum methylated RASSF1A was found to differentiate HCC patients from healthy controls with an AUROC of 0.83nmol/L, and an overall predictive accuracy of 77.5%. It was able to differentiate patients with HCC from those with chronic HCV infection alone with an AUROC of 0.733 and an overall predictive accuracy of 72.5%.
CONCLUSION: The mean serum levels of methylated RASSF1A could be of value for early diagnosis of HCC especially in high risk patients with HCV infection.
PMID: 23122451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Combination therapy of radiofrequency ablation and bevacizumab monitored with power Doppler ultrasound in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Hyperthermia. 2012;28(8):766-75
Authors: Thaker AA, Razjouyan F, Woods DL, Haemmerich D, Sekhar K, Wood BJ, Dreher MR
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to monitor tumour blood flow with power Doppler ultrasound following antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab in order to optimally time the application of radiofrequency (RF) ablation to increase ablation diameter.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Athymic nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts were treated with bevacizumab and imaged daily with power Doppler ultrasound to quantify tumour blood flow. Mice were treated with RF ablation alone or in combination with bevacizumab at the optimal time, as determined by ultrasound. Ablation diameter was measured with histology and tumour microvascular density was calculated with immunohistochemistry. A computational thermal model of RF ablation was used to estimate ablation volume.
RESULTS: A maximum reduction of 27.8 ± 8.6% in tumour blood flow occurred on day 2 following antiangiogenic therapy, while control tumours increased 29.3 ± 17.1% (p < 0.05). Tumour microvascular density was similarly reduced by 45.1 ± 5.9% on day 2 following antiangiogenic therapy. Histology demonstrated a 13.6 ± 5.6% increase in ablation diameter (40 ± 21% increase in volume) consistent with a computational model.
CONCLUSION: Quantitative power Doppler ultrasound is a useful biomarker to monitor tumour blood flow following antiangiogenic treatment and to guide the application of RF ablation as a drug plus device combination therapy.
PMID: 23043501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase and glucocorticoid abuse in meat cattle.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Dec;35(6):596-603
Authors: Bertarelli D, Balbo A, Carletti M, Cannizzo T, Girolami F, Nebbia C
Besides being extensively applied as therapeutical remedies, glucocorticoids (GCs) - most notably dexamethasone or prednisolone - are also illegally used in livestock for growth-promoting purposes. This study was designed to assess the suitability of liver tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), a gluconeogenic enzyme known to be induced by GCs, to act as a reliable candidate biomarker to screen for GC abuse in cattle. Enzyme activity was measured spectrophotometrically in liver cytosols or in cell extracts, and TAT gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. Compared with untreated veal calves, a notable scatter (20-fold) and much higher median values (3-fold) characterized TAT specific activity in liver samples from commercially farmed veal calves. A time-related increase in both enzyme activity and gene expression was detected in rat hepatoma cell lines treated with dexamethasone concentrations (10(-8) or 10(-9) m) in the range of those recorded in noncompliant samples from EU official controls. In experimental studies in which finishing bulls were administered GCs at growth-promoting dosages, however, no such changes were recorded in dexamethasone-treated animals; a statistically significant rise in liver TAT activity (+95%) only occurred in prednisolone-treated bulls. Although further research is needed to characterize the GC-mediated response in cattle liver, TAT does not appear to be a specific and sensitive biomarker of GC abuse in the bovine species.
PMID: 22376142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Expression of smoothened protein in colon cancer and its prognostic value for postoperative liver metastasis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(8):4001-5
Authors: Ding YL, Wang QS, Zhao WM, Xiang L
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUDS: The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is composed of patched (PTCH) and smoothened (SMO), two transmembrane proteins, and downstream glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) transcription factors. Hh signaling plays a pathological role in the occurrence and development of various cancers.
METHODS: To investigate the expression of SMO protein in colon cancer and its association with clinicopathological parameters and postoperative liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry was performed with paraffin-embedded specimens of 96 cases. Relationships between SMO protein expression and clinicopathological parameters, postoperative liver metastasis were analyzed.
RESULTS: IHC examination showed that SMO protein expression was significantly increased in colon cancer tissues compared to normal colon tissues (P = 0.042), positively related to lymph node metastases (P = 0.018) and higher T stages (P = 0.026). Postoperative live metastasis-free survival was significantly longer in the low SMO expression group than in those with high SMO expression (48.7 ± 8.02 months vs 28.0 ± 6.86 months, P=0.036). Multivariate analysis showed SMO expression level to be an independent prognostic factor for postoperative live metastasis-free survival (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.46-2.82, P = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in patients with colon cancer, the SMO expression level is an independent biomarker for postoperative liver metastasis, and SMO might play an important role in colon cancer progression.
PMID: 23098507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Biomarker studies on radiotherapy to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncology. 2013;84 Suppl 1:64-8
Authors: Tsai CL, Koong AC, Hsu FM, Graber M, Chen IS, Cheng JC
Radiotherapy (RT) has been gradually integrated into the multimodality treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The various patterns of failure in HCC patients undergoing RT drive the need of effective biomarkers to guide treatment decisions. Limited numbers of biomarkers have been investigated in HCC, with even fewer of them for patients treated by RT. Serum or plasma biomarkers measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were the most common practice. Of particular interest are those biomarkers that are detectable early in the course of radiotherapy which correlated with ultimate clinical outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to evaluate the imaging pattern indicative of disease control following RT. Positron emission tomography shows that pre-RT standard uptake values associate with various types of recurrence after treatment. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) is evolving with the unique features of dual-probe identification, ligation and amplification to allow the small volume of serum/plasma samples for evaluating multiple biomarkers. We demonstrate the screening work of biomarkers by PLA with pre- and post-RT serum samples from HCC patients undergoing RT. Efforts are being made to search for the potential biomarkers for HCC patients treated by RT.
PMID: 23428861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
An insertion/deletion polymorphism within RERT-lncRNA modulates hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
Cancer Res. 2012 Dec 1;72(23):6163-72
Authors: Zhu Z, Gao X, He Y, Zhao H, Yu Q, Jiang D, Zhang P, Ma X, Huang H, Dong D, Wan J, Gu Z, Jiang X, Yu L, Gao Y
The Prolyl hydroxylase 1 (EGLN2) is known to affect tumorigenesis by regulating the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor. Polymorphisms in EGLN2 may facilitate cancer cell survival under hypoxic conditions and directly associate with cancer susceptibility. Here, we examined the contribution of a 4-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs10680577) within the distal promoter of EGLN2 to the risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) in Chinese populations. The contribution of rs10680577 to HCC risk was investigated in 623 HCC cases and 1,242 controls and replicated in an independent case-control study consisting of 444 HCC cases and 450 controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the deletion allele of rs10680577 was significantly associated with increased risk for HCC occurrence in both case-control studies [OR = 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-1.66, P < 0.0001; OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.18-1.88, P = 0.0007]. Such positive association was more pronounced in current smokers (OR = 3.49, 95% CI = 2.24-5.45) than nonsmokers (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.03-1.50; heterogeneity P = 0.0002). Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed that the deletion allele was significantly correlated with higher expression of both EGLN2 and RERT-lncRNA [a long noncoding RNA whose sequence overlaps with Ras-related GTP-binding protein 4b (RAB4B) and EGLN2)] in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, RERT-lncRNA expression was also significantly correlated with EGLN2 expression in vivo, consistent with in vitro gain-of-function study that showed overexpressing RERT-lncRNA upregulated EGLN2. Finally, in silico prediction suggested that the insertion allele could disrupt the structure of RERT-lncRNA. Taken together, our findings provided strong evidence for the hypothesis that rs10680577 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis, possibly by affecting RERT-lncRNA structure and subsequently EGLN2 expression, making it a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of HCC.
PMID: 23026137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
In vivo and in vitro suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma by EF24, a curcumin analog.
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48075
Authors: Liu H, Liang Y, Wang L, Tian L, Song R, Han T, Pan S, Liu L
The synthetic compound 3,5-bis(2-flurobenzylidene)piperidin-4-one (EF24) is a potent analog of curcumin that exhibits enhanced biological activity and bioavailability without increasing toxicity. EF24 exerts antitumor activity by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis, suppressing many types of cancer cells in vitro. The antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties of EF24 provide theoretical support for its development and application to liver cancers. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of EF24 on liver cancer to better understand its therapeutic effects and mechanisms. EF24 induced significant apoptosis and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest in mouse liver cancer cell lines, Hepa1-6 and H22. The expression levels of G2/M cell cycle regulating factors, cyclin B1 and Cdc2, were significantly decreased, pp53, p53, and p21 were significantly increased in EF24-treated cells. In addition, EF24 treatment significantly reduced Bcl-2 concomitant with an increase in Bax, enhanced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, resulting in an upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3, which promoted poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. EF24-treated cells also displayed decreases in phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Our in vitro protein expression data were confirmed in vivo using a subcutaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model. This mouse HCC model confirmed that total body weight was unchanged following EF24 treatment, although tumor weight was significantly decreased. Using an orthotopic HCC model, EF24 significantly reduced the liver/body weight ratio and relative tumor areas compared to the control group. In situ detection of apoptotic cells and quantification of Ki-67, a biomarker of cell proliferation, all indicated significant tumor suppression with EF24 treatment. These results suggest that EF24 exhibits anti-tumor activity on liver cancer cells via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and inducing cell cycle arrest coupled with antiangiogenesis. The demonstrated activities of EF24 support its further evaluation as a treatment for human liver cancers.
PMID: 23118928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CA 15-3 is a predictive and prognostic biomarker in patients with metastasized breast cancer undergoing Selective Internal Radiation Therapy.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jan;51(1):63-6
Authors: Fahmueller YN, Nagel D, Hoffmann RT, Tatsch K, Jakobs T, Stieber P, Holdenrieder S
PMID: 23260003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Development of IGF signaling antibody arrays for the identification of hepatocellular carcinoma biomarkers.
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46851
Authors: Zhou Q, Mao YQ, Jiang WD, Chen YR, Huang RY, Zhou XB, Wang YF, Shi Z, Wang ZS, Huang RP
PURPOSE: Our objective was to develop a system to simultaneously and quantitatively measure the expression levels of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family proteins in numerous samples and to apply this approach to profile the IGF family proteins levels in cancer and adjacent tissues from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Antibodies against ten IGF family proteins (IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2, IGF-2R, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-6, and Insulin) were immobilized on the surface of a glass slide in an array format to create an IGF signaling antibody array. Tissue lysates prepared from patient's liver cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were then applied to the arrays. The proteins captured by antibodies on the arrays were then incubated with a cocktail of biotinylated detection antibodies and visualized with a fluorescence detection system. By comparison with standard protein amount, the exact protein concentrations in the samples can be determined. The expression levels of the ten IGF family proteins in 25 pairs of HCC and adjacent tissues were quantitatively measured using this novel antibody array technology. The differential expression levels between cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: A novel IGF signaling antibody array was developed which allows the researcher to simultaneously detect ten proteins involved in IGF signal pathway with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this approach, we found that the levels of IGF-2R and IGFBP-2 in HCC tissues were higher than those in adjacent tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our IGF signaling antibody array which can detect the expression of ten IGF family members with high sensitivity and specificity will undoubtedly prove a powerful tool for drug and biomarker discovery.
PMID: 23071652 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Peritumoral small ephrinA5 isoform level predicts the postoperative survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41749
Authors: Wang TH, Ng KF, Yeh TS, Wang YL, Liang KH, Yeh CT, Chen TC
BACKGROUND: EphrinA5, a member of Eph/Ephrin family, possesses two alternative isoforms, large ephrinA5 isoform (ephrinA5L) and small ephrinA5 isoform (ephrinA5S). EphrinA5L is a putative tumor suppressor in several types of human cancers. However, the role of ephrinA5S in hepato-carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the role of ephrinA5 isoforms in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC).
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 142 paired HCCs and peritumoral liver tissue was examined for relative expression of ephrinA5L and ephrinA5S by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed their expression in relation to clinical parameters, disease-free survival and overall survival. Functional assays were performed to dissect the possible underlying mechanisms. Both ephrinA5L and ephrinA5S were significantly downregulated in HCCs, as compared to those in peritumoral tissue (p = 0.013 and 0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated that ephrinA5S was positively correlated with old age and histological grade. In multivariate analysis, high ephrinA5S expression in peritumoral tissue had better disease-free survival (p = 0.002) and overall survival (p = 0.045) in patients with HCC after surgical resection. Functional analysis in HCC cell lines revealed that ephrinA5S had a more potent suppressive effect than ephrinA5L on cell proliferation (p<0.05) and migration (p<0.01). Furthermore, forced expression of both ephrinA5 isoforms in HCC cell lines significantly down-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression by promoting c-Cbl-mediated EGFR degradation.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: EphrinA5S might be a useful prognostic biomarker for HCCs after surgical resection. EphrinA5, especially ephrinA5S, acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocarcinogenesis. Peritumoral small ephrinA5 isoform level could determine the postoperative survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PMID: 22860012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C-terminal region of HBx is crucial for mitochondrial DNA damage.
Cancer Lett. 2013 Apr 30;331(1):76-83
Authors: Jung SY, Kim YJ
HBx is strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma development through transcription factor activation and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) production. However, the exact role of HBx during hepatocellular carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Recently, it was reported that C-terminal truncated HBx is associated with tumor metastasis. In the present study, we confirmed that the C-terminal region of HBx is required for ROS production and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) formation, which is considered as a reliable biomarker of oxidative stress. These results suggest ROS production induced by the C-terminal region of HBx leads to mitochondrial DNA damage, which may play a role in HCC development.
PMID: 23246371 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Serum gamma-glutamyl-transferase independently predicts outcome after transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma: external validation.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2012 Oct;35(5):1102-8
Authors: Guiu B, Deschamps F, Boulin M, Boige V, Malka D, Ducreux M, Hillon P, de Baère T
PURPOSE: An Asian study showed that gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) can predict survival after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was designed to validate in a European population this biomarker as an independent predictor of outcome after TACE of HCC and to determine a threshold value for clinical use.
METHODS: In 88 consecutive patients treated by TACE for HCC, the optimal threshold for GGT serum level was determined by a ROC analysis. Endpoints were time-to-treatment failure (TTTF) and overall survival (OS). All multivariate models were internally validated using bootstrapping (90 replications).
RESULTS: Median follow-up lasted 373 days, and median overall survival was 748 days. The optimal threshold for GGT was 165 U/L (sensitivity: 89.3%; specificity: 56.7%; area under the ROC curve: 0.7515). Median TTTF was shorter when GGT was ≥165 U/L (281 days vs. 850 days; P < 0.001). GGT ≥165 U/L (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.06; P = 0.02), WHO PS of 2 (HR = 5.4; P = 0.002), and tumor size (HR = 1.12; P = 0.014) were independently associated with shorter TTTF. Median OS was shorter when GGT was ≥165 U/L (508 days vs. not reached; P < 0.001). GGT ≥ 165 U/L (HR = 3.05; P = 0.029), WHO PS of 2 (HR = 12.95; P < 0.001), alfa-fetoprotein (HR = 2.9; P = 0.01), and tumor size (HR = 1.096; P = 0.013) were independently associated with shorter OS. The results were confirmed by bootstrapping.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide in a European population the external validation of GGT as an independent predictor of outcome after TACE of HCC. A serum level of GGT ≥ 165 U/L is independently associated with both shorter TTTF and OS.
PMID: 22009578 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]