Relationship of urinary isoprostanes to prostate cancer occurrence.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013 Jan;372(1-2):149-53
Authors: Brys M, Morel A, Forma E, Krzeslak A, Wilkosz J, Rozanski W, Olas B
To estimate the oxidative stress in patients with prostate cancer and in a control group, we used the biomarker of lipid peroxidation-isoprostanes (8-isoPGF(2)) and the level of selected antioxidants (glucose and uric acid [UA]). The level of urinary isoprostanes was determined in patients and controls using an immunoassay kit according to the manufacturer's instruction. The levels of UA and glucose were also determined in serum by the use of UA Assay Kit and Glucose Assay Kit. We observed a statistically increased the level of isoprostanes in urine of patients with prostate cancer in compared with a control group. The concentration of tested antioxidants in blood from patients with prostate cancer was also higher than in healthy subjects. Moreover, our experiments indicate that the correlation between the increased amount of UA and the lipid peroxidation exists in prostate cancer patients (in all tested groups). Prostate cancer risk by urinary isoprostanes level was analyzed, and a positive association was found (relative risk for highest vs. lowest quartile of urinary isoprostanes = 1.6; 95 % confidence interval 1.2-2.4; p for trend = 0.03). We suggest that reactive oxygen species induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with prostate cancer, and the level of isoprostanes may be used as a non-invasive marker for determination of oxidative stress. We also propose that UA may enhance the oxidative stress in patients with prostate cancer.
PMID: 22983829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A new approach to simultaneously quantify both TCR α- and β-chain diversity after adoptive immunotherapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Sep 1;18(17):4733-42
Authors: Zhang M, Maiti S, Bernatchez C, Huls H, Rabinovich B, Champlin RE, Vence LM, Hwu P, Radvanyi L, Cooper LJ
PURPOSE: T-cell receptor (TCR) variable Vα and Vβ gene diversity is a surrogate biomarker for the therapeutic potential of adoptive immunotherapy and cellular immunity. Therefore, creating a straightforward, rapid, sensitive, and reliable method to view the global changes of both TCRVα and Vβ transcripts in heterogeneous populations of T cells is appealing.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We designed a "direct TCR expression assay" (DTEA) using a panel of customized bar-coded probes that simultaneously detects and quantifies 45 Vα and 46 Vβ transcripts in a nonenzymatic digital multiplexed assay from a small number of cells (10(4) cells) or as little as 100 ng of total RNA.
RESULTS: We evaluated DTEA on total RNA samples of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood obtained from patients with melanoma after adoptive T-cell therapy. DTEA detected a similar spectrum of the dominant patterns of TCRVβ gene usage as sequencing cloned TCRVβ CDR3 regions. However, DTEA was rapid, achieved a level of sensitivity to identify rare T-cell populations, and simultaneously tracked the full array of Vα and Vβ transcripts.
CONCLUSIONS: DTEA can rapidly and sensitively track changes in TCRVα and Vβ gene usages in T-cell pools following immune interventions, such as adoptive T-cell transfer, and may also be used to assess impact of vaccination or reconstitution of T-cell compartment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
PMID: 22761473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Expression analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in colon and rectal cancer in association with prognosis and response to chemotherapy.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2012 Dec;19(13):4193-201
Authors: Kahlert C, Gaitzsch E, Steinert G, Mogler C, Herpel E, Hoffmeister M, Jansen L, Benner A, Brenner H, Chang-Claude J, Rahbari N, Schmidt T, Klupp F, Grabe N, Lahrmann B, Koch M, Halama N, Büchler M, Weitz J
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been described as a cancer stem cell marker and as a regulator of cellular chemoresistance. Therefore, ALDH1A1 has been suggested as potential biomarker to stratify patients into different risk categories for a "personalized" therapy approach. We have investigated the prognostic role of ALDH1A1 in primary colorectal cancer and its value in predicting response to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.
METHODS: Immunostaining against ALDH1A1 was performed on a paraffin-embedded tissue microarray including 659 primary colon cancer samples and 338 rectal cancer samples. Likewise, tissue of 44 palliatively resected colorectal liver metastases on whole-mount tissue slides was immunostained against ALDH1A1. Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and stromal expression of ALDH1A1 was assessed and merged with histopathological and clinical data.
RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that cytoplasmic and stromal expression of ALDH1A1 is not significantly associated with prognosis either in colon or in rectal cancer. Furthermore, cytoplasmic expression of ALDH1A1 does not predict response to palliative chemotherapy in patients with metastatic diseases. Intriguingly, as a novel finding, nuclear expression of ALDH1A1 was observed in a small subgroup of patients with colon cancer and rectal cancer. In colon cancer, nuclear expression was significantly associated with shortened overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical expression analysis of ALDH1A1 in colon cancer is useful for the detection of nuclear expression in a small subpopulation of patients and is associated with shorter survival. Cytoplasmic expression fails to be of clinical relevance as prognostic or predictive marker in colorectal cancer.
PMID: 22878609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Validation of expression patterns for nine miRNAs in 204 lymph-node negative breast cancers.
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e48692
Authors: Jonsdottir K, Janssen SR, Da Rosa FC, Gudlaugsson E, Skaland I, Baak JP, Janssen EA
INTRODUCTION: Although lymph node negative (LN-) breast cancer patients have a good 10-years survival (∼85%), most of them still receive adjuvant therapy, while only some benefit from this. More accurate prognostication of LN- breast cancer patient may reduce over- and under-treatment. Until now proliferation is the strongest prognostic factor for LN- breast cancer patients. The small molecule microRNA (miRNA) has opened a new window for prognostic markers, therapeutic targets and/or therapeutic components. Previously it has been shown that miR-18a/b, miR-25, miR-29c and miR-106b correlate to high proliferation.
METHODS: The current study validates nine miRNAs (miR-18a/b miR-25, miR-29c, miR-106b, miR375, miR-424, miR-505 and let-7b) significantly correlated with established prognostic breast cancer biomarkers. Total RNA was isolated from 204 formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) LN- breast cancers and analyzed with quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Independent T-test was used to detect significant correlation between miRNA expression level and the different clinicopathological features for breast cancer.
RESULTS: Strong and significant associations were observed for high expression of miR-18a/b, miR-106b, miR-25 and miR-505 to high proliferation, oestrogen receptor negativity and cytokeratin 5/6 positivity. High expression of let-7b, miR-29c and miR-375 was detected in more differentiated tumours. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high miR-106b expression had an 81% survival rate vs. 95% (P = 0.004) for patients with low expression.
CONCLUSION: High expression of miR-18a/b are strongly associated with basal-like breast cancer features, while miR-106b can identify a group with higher risk for developing distant metastases in the subgroup of Her2 negatives. Furthermore miR-106b can identify a group of patients with 100% survival within the otherwise considered high risk group of patients with high proliferation. Using miR-106b as a biomarker in conjunction to mitotic activity index could thereby possibly save 18% of the patients with high proliferation from overtreatment.
PMID: 23144930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Role of the angiogenic components, VEGFA, FGF2, OPN and RHOC, in urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
Oncol Rep. 2012 Oct;28(4):1159-66
Authors: Zaravinos A, Volanis D, Lambrou GI, Delakas D, Spandidos DA
The objective of this study was to analyze the expression profile of the angiogenic components, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), osteopontin (OPN) and ras homolog gene family, member C (RHOC), in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the urinary bladder and to examine their role as candidate diagnostic biomarkers. Using qPCR, 77 samples of UCC of the urinary bladder and 77 matched tumor-associated normal samples were investigated to determine the expression of the four angiogenic components. The correlation between gene expression, patient survival and pathological features of the tumors was also examined. The VEGFA and OPN transcript levels were greater in the bladder cancer tissue than in the normal urothelium (P<0.001). Patients with higher VEGFA mRNA levels showed a tendency towards shorter cancer-specific survival. OPN levels showed a gradual increase, the lowest levels being found in non-invasive carcinoma and the highest in muscle invasive tumors. Elevated OPN levels indicated poor prognosis in connection with advanced disease stage (P<0.001). Both superficially invasive and muscle invasive tumors had significantly higher FGF2 levels compared to the control tissues (P=0.018 and P=0.050, respectively). Moreover, FGF2 was significantly higher in the metastatic vs. the non-metastatic tumors (P=0.0097). FGF2 levels exhibited a trend towards a correlation with worse patient survival. RHOC mRNA levels were higher in muscle invasive compared to superficially invasive tumors, as well as in grade III vs. grade I/II tumors. Furthermore, we detected worse overall survival for patients with high RHOC expression levels. VEGFA and FGF2 exhibited the best linear combination in the ROC curves for specificity and sensitivity. Thus, VEGFA and FGF2 may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnostic purposes. Higher OPN expression may be used as a potential biomarker to predict patient survival relative to advanced tumor stage. However, further studies are required to investigate its role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.
PMID: 22895562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prohibitin and its rapidly emerging role as a biomarker of systemic malignancies-reply.
Hum Pathol. 2013 Apr;44(4):679-80
Authors: Guo F, Hiroshima K, Wu D, Satoh M, Abulazi M, Nomura F, Yoshino I, Tomonaga T, Nakatani Y
PMID: 23506708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prohibitin and its rapidly emerging role as a biomarker of systemic malignancies.
Hum Pathol. 2013 Apr;44(4):678-9
Authors: Kapoor S
PMID: 23506707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Synaptonemal complex protein 3 as a novel prognostic marker in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2013 Apr;44(4):472-9
Authors: Chung JY, Kitano H, Takikita M, Cho H, Noh KH, Kim TW, Ylaya K, Hanaoka J, Fukuoka J, Hewitt SM
Synaptonemal complex protein 3 is a marker for cell transformation that has prognostic significance in various cancers. However, the prognostic significance of synaptonemal complex protein 3 has not been studied in non-small cell lung cancer. To investigate the potential correlation between synaptonemal complex protein 3 and various clinicopathologic parameters, we assessed the expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 in archival tumor tissues from 258 patients with non-small cell lung cancer by immunohistochemical staining. By immunofluorescence, synaptonemal complex protein 3 was detected in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of NCI-H1299 cell. In tumor samples, synaptonemal complex protein 3 is detected as cytoplasmic expression pattern and observed in 50 clinical samples (19.4%) by immunohistochemical staining. Synaptonemal complex protein 3 expression was correlated with T status (P = .008), lymph node metastasis (P = .010), tumor types (P = .019), and pleural invasion (P = .005). In multivariate analysis of patients with early stage disease, increased synaptonemal complex protein 3 expression predicted worse overall survival in early stage (stage I and II) with pT1 status (P = .041). These results suggest that positive synaptonemal complex protein 3 expression is a portent of poor outcome and may be a potential biomarker in the early stages of the non-small cell lung cancer for survival and may provide clues in the identification of patients for adjuvant therapy.
PMID: 23069255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) is a biomarker and therapeutic target for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Mol Med. 2012;18:1449-55
Authors: Hamid AR, Pfeiffer MJ, Verhaegh GW, Schaafsma E, Brandt A, Sweep FC, Sedelaar JP, Schalken JA
Current endocrine treatment for advanced prostate cancer does not result in a complete ablation of adrenal androgens. Adrenal androgens can be metabolized by prostate cancer cells, which is one of the mechanisms associated with progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) is a steroidogenic enzyme that plays a crucial role in the conversion of adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into high-affinity ligands for the androgen receptor (testosterone [T] and dihydrotestosterone [DHT]). The aim of this study was to examine whether AKR1C3 could be used as a marker and therapeutic target for CRPC. AKR1C3 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in CRPC tissue, compared with benign prostate and primary prostate cancer tissue. High AKR1C3 levels were found only in a subset of CRPC patients. AKR1C3 can be used as a biomarker for active intratumoral steroidogenesis and can be measured in biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate specimens. DuCaP (a CRPC cell line that has high AKR1C3 expression levels) used and converted DHEA under hormone-depleted conditions into T and DHT. The DHEA-induced growth of DuCaP could be antagonized by indomethacine, an inhibitor of AKR1C3. This study indicates that AKR1C3 can be considered a therapeutic target in a subgroup of patients with high AKR1C3 expression.
PMID: 23196782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cholesterol and the development of clear-cell renal carcinoma.
Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2012 Dec;12(6):742-50
Authors: Drabkin HA, Gemmill RM
The majority of kidney cancers are clear-cell carcinomas (ccRCC), characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, other neutral lipids and glycogen. Rather than being a passive bystander, the clear-cell phenotype is suggested to be a biomarker of deregulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, which plays an important role in development of the disease. One clue to this relationship has come from the elucidation of the hereditary kidney cancer gene, TRC8, which functions partly to degrade key regulators of endogenous cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis. In addition, deregulation of the mevalonate pathway has been shown to play a key role in cellular transformation and invasion. These findings are supported by considerable epidemiologic data linking obesity and the deregulation of lipid biosynthesis to ccRCC.
PMID: 22939900 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Retinoic acid-induced protein 3: identification and characterisation of a novel prognostic colon cancer biomarker.
Eur J Cancer. 2013 Jan;49(2):531-9
Authors: Zougman A, Hutchins GG, Cairns DA, Verghese E, Perry SL, Jayne DG, Selby PJ, Banks RE
AIM OF THE STUDY: Validated molecular biomarkers are urgently required in colon cancer (CC) to accurately define prognosis and, ideally, to predict response to therapeutic modalities such as adjuvant chemotherapy. We aimed to identify and characterise a novel membrane-associated protein in CC tissues which may offer diagnostic and, potentially, therapeutic targeting opportunities.
METHODS: Label-free mass spectrometric (MS) quantitation was employed to profile matched colon tissues for malignancy-associated proteins. The putative diagnostic utility of a chosen marker was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 367 CC tissue samples contained within the NCI Progression Colon Cancer tissue microarray (TMA) set.
RESULTS: Retinoic acid-induced protein 3 (RAI3) was initially identified as a plasma membrane protein overexpressed in CC. Cancer-associated RAI3 over-expression was confirmed by RAI3 IHC. Although RAI3 IHC expression patterns were variable within neoplastic epithelium, 76% (n=236) of interpretable CC cases (n=312) displayed diffuse cytoplasmic expression. Of note, a sub-set of CC tissues (n=23, 7.4%) displayed very strong cytoplasmic expression, a feature significantly associated with disease recurrence in Dukes' A-C (stage I-III) patients (hazard ratio (HR)=3.076, [95%confidence interval (CI)=1.738-5.445]; p<0.001) when compared to low or negative expression of RAI3. This association retained univariate significance in Dukes' B/stage II patients only (HR=3.494, [95%CI=1.197-10.20]; p<0.022). Significantly, the prognostic capacity of RAI3 was maintained in the stage I-III cohort following multivariate modelling (HR=2.11, [95%CI 1.109-4.017], p=0.023).
CONCLUSION: RAI3 is a putative prognostic marker that identifies a small subset of CC patients with high recurrence risk. This study demonstrates the potential value of modern proteomic technology in clinically relevant applications.
PMID: 23021913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1: a review of its pleiotropic actions in cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2012;11(5):183-90
Authors: Khaled YS, Elkord E, Ammori BJ
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily that can serve as a potential immune-therapeutic target and/or a prognostic biomarker for the treatment of some cancers. This article reviews the current published data on the molecular and clinical application of MIC-1 in cancer.
METHODS: Literature review was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases.
RESULTS: MIC-1 is the only known secreted p53-regulated cytokine and therefore can serve as a biomarker for p53 activation both in vitro and in vivo. MIC-1 gene can be activated by cyclooxygenase inhibitors and has pro-apoptotic and anti-tumour activities. Although MIC-1 may induce anti-tumour role in the early stages of cancer, it can promote the invasiveness and metastatic behaviour in advanced stages. Greater concentration of MIC-1 was associated with the induction of cancer-related anorexia and weight loss in animals and humans. Of clinical interest, MIC-1 out-performs all available biomarkers including CA19-9 in the differentiation of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer from patients with benign pancreatic disease. MIC-1 gene was over-expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), and a progressive rise of MIC-1 serum levels was noted in patients with adenomatous polyps and further in patients with CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: MIC-1 cytokine has the potential characteristics for a new diagnostic biomarker and a target for cancer treatment. Further research however is required to characterise MIC-1 receptors and to revalidate its diagnostic power in larger and better-standardised clinical studies.
PMID: 23220850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) mRNA predicts short-term relapse in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients.
Cancer Lett. 2013 Mar 1;330(1):106-12
Authors: Kontos CK, Chantzis D, Papadopoulos IN, Scorilas A
The members of the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family are aberrantly expressed in cancer, including colorectal adenocarcinoma. KLK4 is an endogenous activator of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, inducing PAR1 signaling and subsequent ERK1/2 activation. The aim of this study was to analyze KLK4 mRNA expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma and to examine its prognostic value as a novel molecular tissue biomarker in this malignancy. Therefore, total RNA was isolated from primary tumors of 81 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients, cDNA was prepared, and KLK4 mRNA expression analysis was performed using quantitative real-time PCR. KLK4 mRNA was significantly associated with the Dukes stage, tumor invasion, size, and histological grade. Survival analysis demonstrated that KLK4 mRNA expression constitutes an unfavorable prognostic biomarker in colorectal adenocarcinoma, predicting poor disease-free survival (DFS), independently of the nodal status and tumor size. Furthermore, KLK4 mRNA predicts short-term relapse of lymph node-negative patients or those with tumors of early Dukes stage. In conclusion, KLK4 mRNA expression can be regarded as a novel potential tissue biomarker in colorectal adenocarcinoma.
PMID: 23201139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The "stone-like" pattern of LC3A expression and its clinicopathologic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Feb 22;431(4):760-6
Authors: Xi SY, Lu JB, Chen JW, Cao Y, Luo RZ, Wu QL, Cai MY
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that involves lysosomal degradations of cellular organelles. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A (LC3A), an autophagic gene, is differentially expressed in human cancers. However, the relationship between LC3A expression and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated. Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression patterns of LC3A in HCC. The resulting data were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman's rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Two distinct patterns of LC3A expression were observed in HCC: "stone-like" structuring and diffuse cytoplasmic expression. High levels of LC3A expression were more frequently observed in HCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumorous tissue. Correlation analyses indicated that high expression of the "stone-like" LC3A was correlated with greater levels of serum AFP, poorer tumor differentiation and the presence of vascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant association between high expression of the "stone-like" LC3A and unfavorable prognosis (P<0.001). Importantly, multivariate analysis (P<0.05) identified the "stone-like" expression of LC3A in HCC as an independent prognostic factor. Collectively, our data provide compelling evidence that "stone-like" expression of LC3A plays an important role in HCC progression and may act as a biomarker of prognosis for patients with HCC.
PMID: 23333394 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Selenoprotein P status correlates to cancer-specific mortality in renal cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46644
Authors: Meyer HA, Endermann T, Stephan C, Stoedter M, Behrends T, Wolff I, Jung K, Schomburg L
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for selenoprotein biosynthesis. Selenoproteins have been implicated in cancer risk and tumor development. Selenoprotein P (SePP) serves as the major Se transport protein in blood and as reliable biomarker of Se status in marginally supplied individuals. Among the different malignancies, renal cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate. In this study, we aimed to analyze the Se status in renal cell cancer (RCC) patients and whether it correlates to cancer-specific mortality. To this end, serum samples of RCC patients (n = 41) and controls (n = 21) were retrospectively analyzed. Serum Se and SePP concentrations were measured by X-ray fluorescence and an immunoassay, respectively. Clinical and survival data were compared to serum Se and SePP concentrations as markers of Se status by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. In our patients, higher tumor grade and tumor stage at diagnosis correlated to lower SePP and Se concentrations. Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that low Se status at diagnosis (SePP<2.4 mg/l, bottom tertile of patient group) was associated with a poor 5-year survival rate of 20% only. We conclude that SePP and Se concentrations are of prognostic value in RCC and may serve as additional diagnostic biomarkers identifying a Se deficit in kidney cancer patients potentially affecting therapy regimen. As poor Se status was indicative of high mortality odds, we speculate that an adjuvant Se supplementation of Se-deficient RCC patients might be beneficial in order to stabilize their selenoprotein expression hopefully prolonging their survival. However, this assumption needs to be rigorously tested in prospective clinical trials.
PMID: 23056383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Frequent epigenetic silencing of the folate-metabolising gene cystathionine-beta-synthase in gastrointestinal cancer.
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49683
Authors: Zhao H, Li Q, Wang J, Su X, Ng KM, Qiu T, Shan L, Ling Y, Wang L, Cai J, Ying J
BACKGROUND: Both gastric and colorectal cancers (CRC) are the most frequently occurring malignancies worldwide with the overall survival of these patients remains unsatisfied. Identification of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) silenced by promoter CpG methylation uncovers mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifies new epigenetic biomarkers for early cancer detection and prognosis assessment. Cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) functions in the folate metabolism pathway, which is intricately linked to methylation of genomic DNA. Dysregulation of DNA methylation contributes substantially to cancer development.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify potential TSGs silenced by aberrant promoter methylation in CRC, we analyzed tumor and adjacent tissues from CRC cases using the Illumina Human Methylation45 BeadChip. We identified hypermethylation of the CBS gene in CRC samples, compared to adjacent tissues. Methylation and decreased mRNA expression of CBS were detected in most CRC cell lines by methylation-specific PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR, as well as in gastric cancer. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A reversed methylation and restored CBS mRNA expression indicating a direct effect. Aberrant methylation was further detected in 31% of primary CRCs (29 of 96) and 55% of gastric tumors (11 of 20). In contrast, methylation was seldom found in normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. CBS methylation was associated with KRAS mutations in primary CRCs (P = 0.04, by χ(2)-test). However, no association was found between CBS methylation or KRAS mutations with cancer relapse/metastasis in Stage II CRC patients.
CONCLUSION: A novel finding from this study is that the folate metabolism enzyme CBS mRNA levels are frequently downregulated through CpG methylation of the CBS gene in gastric cancer and CRC, suggesting that CBS functions as a tumor suppressor gene. These findings warrant further study of CBS as an epigenetic biomarker for molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers.
PMID: 23152928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Multifunctional nanobeacon for imaging Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen-associated colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2013 May 1;132(9):2107-17
Authors: Kumagai H, Pham W, Kataoka M, Hiwatari K, McBride J, Wilson KJ, Tachikawa H, Kimura R, Nakamura K, Liu EH, Gore JC, Sakuma S
This research aimed to validate the specificity of the newly developed nanobeacon for imaging the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen, a potential biomarker of colorectal cancer. The imaging agent is comprised of a submicron-sized polystyrene nanosphere encapsulated with a Coumarin 6 dye. The surface of the nanosphere was modified with peanut agglutinin (PNA) and poly(N-vinylacetamide (PNVA) moieties. The former binds to Gal-β(1-3)GalNAc with high affinity while the latter enhances the specificity of PNA for the carbohydrates. The specificity of the nanobeacon was evaluated in human colorectal cancer cells and specimens, and the data were compared with immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, distribution of the nanobeacon in vivo was assessed using an "intestinal loop" mouse model. Quantitative analysis of the data indicated that approximately 2 μg of PNA were detected for each milligram of the nanobeacon. The nanobeacon specifically reported colorectal tumors by recognizing the tumor-specific antigen through the surface-immobilized PNA. Removal of TF from human colorectal cancer cells and tissues resulted in a loss of fluorescence signal, which suggests the specificity of the probe. Most importantly, the probe was not absorbed systematically in the large intestine upon topical application. As a result, no registered toxicity was associated with the probe. These data demonstrate the potential use of this novel nanobeacon for imaging the TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of colorectal cancer at the molecular level.
PMID: 23055136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Detection of methylated SEPT9 in plasma is a reliable screening method for both left- and right-sided colon cancers.
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46000
Authors: Tóth K, Sipos F, Kalmár A, Patai AV, Wichmann B, Stoehr R, Golcher H, Schellerer V, Tulassay Z, Molnár B
BACKGROUND: Methylated Septin 9 (SEPT9) is a sensitive biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) from peripheral blood. However, its relationship to cancer localization, guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) have not been described.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected for SEPT9 analysis from patients with no evidence of disease (NED) (n=92) before colonoscopy and CRC (n=92) before surgical treatment. DNA was isolated and bisulfite-converted using Epi proColon kit 2.0. Qualitative determination was performed using Epi proColon 2.0 RT-PCR assay. Samples for gFOBT and CEA analysis were collected from NED (n=17 and 27, respectively) and CRC (n=22 and 27, respectively). SEPT9 test was positive in 15.2% (14/92) of NED and 95.6% (88/92) of CRC, including 100% (67/67) from stage II to stage IV CRC and 84% (21/25) of stage I CRC when a sample was called positive if 1 out of 3 PCR replicates was positive. In a second analysis (2 out of 3 PCR replicates) specificity improved to 99% (91/92) of NEDs, at a sensitivity of 79.3% (73/92) of SEPT9 positives in CRC. gFOBT was positive in 29.4% (5/17) of NED and 68.2% (15/22) of CRC and elevated CEA levels were detected in 14.8% (4/27) of NED and 51.8% (14/27) of CRC. Both SEPT9 (84.8%) and CEA (85.2%) showed higher specificity than gFOBT (70.6%). SEPT9 was positive in 96.4% (54/56) of left-sided colon cancer (LSCC) cases and 94.4% (34/36) of right-sided colon cancer (RSCC) cases. gFOBT was positive in 83.3% (10/12) of cases with LSCC and 50% (5/10) of cases with RSCC, elevated CEA was detected 60% (9/15) of LSCC and 41.7% (5/12) of RSCC.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high degree of sensitivity and specificity of SEPT9 in plasma makes it a better method to detect CRC than gFOBT and CEA, even for the more difficult to detect RSCC.
PMID: 23049919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ellipsoidFN: a tool for identifying a heterogeneous set of cancer biomarkers based on gene expressions.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Feb 1;41(4):e53
Authors: Ren X, Wang Y, Chen L, Zhang XS, Jin Q
Computationally identifying effective biomarkers for cancers from gene expression profiles is an important and challenging task. The challenge lies in the complicated pathogenesis of cancers that often involve the dysfunction of many genes and regulatory interactions. Thus, sophisticated classification model is in pressing need. In this study, we proposed an efficient approach, called ellipsoidFN (ellipsoid Feature Net), to model the disease complexity by ellipsoids and seek a set of heterogeneous biomarkers. Our approach achieves a non-linear classification scheme for the mixed samples by the ellipsoid concept, and at the same time uses a linear programming framework to efficiently select biomarkers from high-dimensional space. ellipsoidFN reduces the redundancy and improves the complementariness between the identified biomarkers, thus significantly enhancing the distinctiveness between cancers and normal samples, and even between cancer types. Numerical evaluation on real prostate cancer, breast cancer and leukemia gene expression datasets suggested that ellipsoidFN outperforms the state-of-the-art biomarker identification methods, and it can serve as a useful tool for cancer biomarker identification in the future. The Matlab code of ellipsoidFN is freely available from http://doc.aporc.org/wiki/EllipsoidFN.
PMID: 23262226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Combination of molecular alterations and smoking intensity predicts bladder cancer outcome: a report from the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program.
Cancer. 2013 Feb 15;119(4):756-65
Authors: Mitra AP, Castelao JE, Hawes D, Tsao-Wei DD, Jiang X, Shi SR, Datar RH, Skinner EC, Stein JP, Groshen S, Yu MC, Ross RK, Skinner DG, Cortessis VK, Cote RJ
BACKGROUND: Traditional single-marker and multimarker molecular profiling approaches in bladder cancer do not account for major risk factors and their influence on clinical outcome. This study examined the prognostic value of molecular alterations across all disease stages after accounting for clinicopathological factors and smoking, the most common risk factor for bladder cancer in the developed world, in a population-based cohort.
METHODS: Primary bladder tumors from 212 cancer registry patients (median follow-up, 13.2 years) were immunohistochemically profiled for Bax, caspase-3, apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2, p53, p21, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and E-cadherin alterations. "Smoking intensity" quantified the impact of duration and daily frequency of smoking.
RESULTS: Age, pathological stage, surgical modality, and adjuvant therapy administration were significantly associated with survival. Increasing smoking intensity was independently associated with worse outcome (P < .001). Apaf-1, E-cadherin, and p53 were prognostic for outcome (P = .005, .014, and .032, respectively); E-cadherin remained prognostic following multivariable analysis (P = .040). Combined alterations in all 9 biomarkers were prognostic by univariable (P < .001) and multivariable (P = .006) analysis. A multivariable model that included all 9 biomarkers and smoking intensity had greater accuracy in predicting prognosis than models composed of standard clinicopathological covariates without or with smoking intensity (P < .001 and P = .018, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Apaf-1, E-cadherin, and p53 alterations individually predicted survival in bladder cancer patients. Increasing number of biomarker alterations was significantly associated with worsening survival, although markers comprising the panel were not necessarily prognostic individually. Predictive value of the 9-biomarker panel with smoking intensity was significantly higher than that of routine clinicopathological parameters alone.
PMID: 23319010 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]